An earlier version of this essay has been translated into Spanish. Click here for the Spanish version in PDF format; there is also a version in MS Word format. The links in the essay, however, are only active from the English version below, and have NOT been translated into Spanish.
Most people believe humans are carnivorous/omnivorous creatures—atop the food chain—who have been eating meat, eggs and dairy since the beginning of time. I believe a few sharks, piranhas, hyenas, bears and lions would like to have a word with us about who's ahead of whom in the food chain. Most large herbivores such as rhinos, hippos, elephants and gorillas could also kill a human easily, if provoked. These animals are also ahead of us in the food chain. Humans, historically and scientifically, have always been near the bottom of the food chain. Killing during a one-on-one confrontation without weapons, and the ability to consume bloody raw flesh right from the bone without having it cause disease later on in life, have always been the only true factors in determining physiology and placement in the food chain. All genuine carnivores and omnivores eat an animal's eyes, nose, face, toes, tail, anus, inner organs, blood, brain, skin and fur UNCOOKED. Humans have to cook certain parts of the dismembered animal so we don't become violently ill. That unequivocally makes us fake carnivores/omnivores.
Before tools, weapons, and fire, there was no meat-eating. Humans were gatherers (vegans) long before we started hunting, and consuming dismembered corpses. The aforementioned fact is explained in this 10-minute video which discusses the fossils of a new human species, Homo Naledi, which were discovered by paleoanthropologist Lee Berger and his team in a cave in South Africa. (According to the Creation theory, we were vegans long before we sinfully started murdering animals, and consuming their flesh. See the essays titled The Qur'an and Islam and The Bible, Jesus, and Veganism.) The logical and empirically-based Evolutionary theory surmises that when the Ice Age wiped out most vegetation, we started killing and consuming animals in a pure survival scenario. When the Ice Age ended, however, we should have reverted to the gathering lifestyle that kept us connected to, and part of, the natural world, not fallaciously on top of it.
Our human physiology is such that all the tools, weapons, hubris, deceit and technology have not magically transformed us into carnivorous/omnivorous creatures. Many anthropologists and medical experts attest to the fact that humans are completely herbivorous, plant-eating creatures. Dr. William Roberts, editor-in-chief of The American Journal of Cardiology and a professor at Baylor University, states, "Human beings are not natural carnivores. When we kill animals to eat them, they end up killing us because their flesh—which contains cholesterol and saturated fat—was never intended for human beings who are natural herbivores." Dr. Milton Mills wrote an indisputable essay about human physiology as well. In their book The Vegetarian Way, nutritionists Virginia and Mark Messina compiled an easy-to-understand chart comparing human bodies to those of herbivores, omnivores and carnivores. That chart is shown just above at right.
Human Brain Development
Contrary to the lies being spread by biased meat, dairy and egg-eating scientists, meat was NOT responsible for brain development in humans. It was plant starch, as Dartmouth University Professor Nathaniel Dominy explains in this article. The “nutcracker man” article, and the following paragraph from page 21 of the Sept./Oct. 2008 issue of Science Illustrated, also support the aforesaid fact: “The human ability to digest starch was likely a major factor in the development of our big brains, according to research from the University of California-Santa Cruz and Arizona State University. Compared to other primates, we have significantly more copies of the AMY1 gene responsible for the salivary enzyme amylase, which helps to break down starch. This made it possible for early humans to more efficiently digest starchy foods such as potatoes and corn. Over time, the improved access to carbohydrates, which fuel the brain, may have helped give humans the cerebral boost needed to set us apart from other primates.”
Believing that meat is beneficial to anyone’s brain is an absurd notion anyway. If meat contained a magic potion to help the brain evolve, then why did Albert Einstein—who, incidentally, abstained from meat-eating—develop the Theory of Relativity before sharks, snakes and hyenas? And why haven’t the still-existing, meat-eating tribal societies invented computers or cars yet? Fortunately, any person with HALF A BRAIN understands that something else was at play when CERTAIN humans ascended the “technology” ladder, and separated themselves from OTHER humans, and the rest of the animal kingdom.
Human and Animal Salivation and Digestion
The bodies of humans and other herbivores can be compared to the bodies of genuine carnivores and omnivores along other dimensions as well. For instance, the length of intestines in humans and other herbivores falls somewhere between 7 to 13 times the length of the trunk/torso section of the body (I am being generous compared to the research of Mills and the Messinas). In contrast, the length of intestines in carnivores/omnivores is only 3 to 6 times the length of the trunk/torso. (The length of the trunk/torso is used as the means of comparison rather than overall body length or height because humans are bipedal animals whereas most other animals are quadrupeds.) Moreover, the interior surface of human intestines is heavily fluted and striated, whereas the interior intestinal surfaces of carnivores/omnivores tend to be smooth in comparison. The relatively short intestinal length in carnivores/omnivores, along with the relatively smooth interior surface, allow rotting animal flesh, animal protein, casein, cholesterol, trans fatty acids and the excessive amount of fat found in all animal products to pass through quickly; that is why it's impossible for any real carnivore/omnivore to clog their arteries. Clogging of the arteries, however, affects more than 50 percent of all meat, dairy and egg-eaters in this day and age! In previous generations atherosclerosis affected around 35 percent of the meat, dairy and egg-eating population. The only surprising aspect of the aforementioned study was the scientists' refusal to blame animal products as the main cause of atherosclerosis. Scientists, however, like all meat- dairy and egg-eating addicts, also succumb to the same idiocy and incoherency of addiction-related problem-solving.
Fortunately, some medical professionals aren't addicts and are capable of explaining the truth. Dr. William Castelli, director of the Framingham Heart Study (the world's longest running heart study), supports the aforementioned findings with additional claims about cancer rates dropping 60 percent if people stopped eating meat, cheese, milk and eggs. Other dietary and non-dietary factors can affect heart health, too. Sugar, the excessive amount of fat found in oils, stress, a lack of sleep, the excessive amount of refined carbohydrates found in white rice, white bread, and pasta, smoking tobacco, and a lack of exercise can wreak havoc on the body. Therefore, it is essential to eat plant-based foods exclusively, and control the non-dietary factors to the best of your ability. Check out this 2014 University of Southern California study which clearly indicts animal protein as a deadly toxin.
Humans and other herbivores also have carbohydrate-digestive enzymes in their saliva, meaning our bodies were created for fruits and vegetables. Animal products have no complex carbohydrates, which is why carnivores/omnivores lack carbohydrate-digestive enzymes in their saliva. Many meat, dairy and egg-eaters try disingenuously to exploit the fact that humans are unable to digest cellulose, and discard it during the digestion process. However, cellulose is neither beneficial nor damaging to us in any way, so our inability to digest it is irrelevant. Bonobos, which are humans' closest animal relative as they share 99.5 percent of our DNA, cannot digest cellulose either, and that's because bonobos, like humans, are fruitarians/ frugivores (ultra herbivores). The REAL issue at hand is whether humans can properly process and digest animal protein, casein, the excessive amount of fat found in all animal products, and the 2 to 9 percent of naturally-occurring trans fatty acids found in meat and dairy, which are the main agents responsible for nearly every disease. The tired and shopworn "argument from cellulose indigestion" is just another diversionary tactic used by meat, dairy, and egg addicts who are unable to look in the mirror and admit that they're the key players in the Animal Holocaust.
Human and Animal Dentition
Human teeth are broad, short, blunt, flat and spade-shaped like the teeth of other herbivores, not the fanged mouths of carnivores/omnivores. Most herbivores have canines, incisors and molars, which are used for ripping rough foods like apples, carrots or nuts. Some canines are also used for posturing; they are present to strike fear into the heart of any predator thinking about attacking. This is why hippos (vegans) have the fiercest canines on the planet! For the record, many people believe that lions are the kings of the jungle. But if you put a lion in a room with a hippo, the lion would look for a way out because nobody fucks with a hippo! And if you truly think that humans have carnivorous/omnivorous teeth, compare the photo of human teeth just below with the photo showing the teeth of a genuine carnivore. Then stop at a pet store today and buy a rawhide dog bone (no soft, chewy modern-day nylon bones allowed). When you get home, gnaw on it for a few hours and destroy it with those powerful teeth of yours. ADAPTT hereby absolves itself of any lawsuits when you break and crack your weak little herbivorous teeth and the dentist charges you $10,000 to fix your mouth!
If your lower jaw moves from side to side—and you grind and chew your food—then you are unequivocally herbivorous. The jaws of carnivores/omnivores only move up and down, vertically. They don't chew; they just rip and swallow.
Other Physiological Differences
Humans sweat through their pores to cool down. We don't pant like dogs, cats or lions to cool ourselves down. There are no claws on the human hand either, although claws are a trademark of the carnivore/omnivore. When we drive down the highway and spot a dead animal on the side of the road, I'm quite sure people don't get excited, start to salivate, come to a screeching halt, jump out of their car, scare the crows away and start munching on the dead animal. Real carnivores/omnivores eat dead, rotting animals on the side of the road. We always cook meat before eating it, even though lions don't have gazelle barbeques in the jungles of Africa.
Another stupid argument cherished by people who enslave and kill cows, pigs, birds, and countless other animals is that if your eyes are located in the front of your face (like tigers, hyenas, humans, etc.) rather than on the side of your head (like cows, zebras, deer, etc.), then you must be unambiguously a natural carnivore! This brain-dead bit of reasoning is easily impugned when you realize that sloths, gelada baboons, lemurs, gorillas and bonobos, to name a few, are herbivorous mammals with eyes located—you guessed it—IN THE FRONT of their faces!
For dozens of additional reasons why humans are ill-equipped physiologically to eat meat and other animal foods, check out the "Bite Size Vegan" video at left.
To prove beyond a reasonable doubt that humans are herbivores, allow me to paraphrase author Harvey Diamond’s challenge: Place a two-year old child in a crib with a bunny rabbit and an apple. If the child eats the rabbit and plays with the apple, then I'll eat a steak sandwich that's been dipped in ice cream! Humans have no carnivorous/omnivorous instincts whatsoever when we're born, young and growing up. There isn't a speck of carnivorism nor an iota of omnivorism in us. People become inured to the taste of blood, flesh, veins, muscles, tendons, cow secretions [milk], hen-ass droppings [eggs] and bee vomit [honey] after they're forced down our throats during childhood.
With all this physiological evidence at hand, one might wonder why many physiologists and evolutionary biologists—even the most brilliant and widely-renowned evolutionary biologists such as Richard Dawkins—would continue to indulge their addiction to meat, dairy products and eggs, and publicly rationalize their addiction in ways that wouldn't do justice to a 13-year-old. The answer is simple and clear-cut: Scientists are human, and because humans are fallible and weak, they fall prey to addictions of all kinds. When that happens, the rational mind, supposedly invoked to combat the addiction, usually falls by the wayside. It is only when addicted persons bring what they feel into accord with what they know, their ethics into accord with the scientific facts, and the contents of their stomachs into accord with the contents of their rational brains, that they can break the cycle of addiction that envelops and destroys them.
Are Nonhuman Carnivores Culpable Carnivores?
Sadly, the only glaring difference between the non-herbivore brain and the herbivore counterpart is that the former is incapable of understanding the value of compassionate living. And, YES, I am condemning carnivore/omnivore animals with the aforesaid statement. Herbivores are the ONLY evolved species on the planet. And they suffer more than anyone else because even animal rights activists support the bullying, bloody habits of carnivores and omnivores! If you’re thinking, “But what about the poor lion babies? What would happen if the momma didn’t kill zebras for them?” My response is quite simple: What about the zebra babies? Don’t they have a right to live long lives, and have their mommas alive when they grow up? Wouldn’t it be logical for everyone to get their nutrients directly from plant sources rather than consuming creatures who consumed them first? The Nyanyana crocodile farm in Zimbabwe has proven the validity of the aforesaid claim by converting more than 150,000 crocs to veganism. (Unfortunately, these vile slave-owners aren’t utilizing the vegan diet for ethical reasons as they are murdering the crocs and stealing THEIR skin for the “clothing” industry. But having more than 150,000 stone cold carnivores thrive on a vegan diet proves that veganism is for everybody.)
For the record, I am NOT starting a campaign to stop lions from murdering zebras. I am simply pointing out the insanity of defending victimizers instead of victims, and the hypocrisy of claiming to care about a lion’s murderous choices. First, since herbivores are the victims in this situation, empathy should be reserved for them only. Second, claiming to support lion-on-zebra-killings is disingenuous anyway because if you were hanging out with your dog in the backyard, and he was attacked by a homicidal bear, you would do anything to PREVENT the bear from harming your dog, even if you had to kill the bear! I am kinda curious if people think this hippo was wrong for trying to save a baby impala from a crocodile. Was this zebra misguided for not wanting to be part of this lion’s Death Circle? Were these buffaloes wrong for saving one of their babies from a pride of bloodthirsty carnivores? Was this buffalo wrong for saving his friend from a lion? Should we condemn this bear for saving a drowning crow but then choosing to eat an apple instead? How about the world’s first vegan shark. Should we roll our eyes at her because she doesn’t want to kill anymore? Didn’t this leopard display pure altruism when she protected a baby baboon from a skulking hyena, yet exhibit pure psychosis for killing the momma baboon in the first place? The previous example illustrates how all beings can choose to be rational or irrational. Unfortunately, many beings become psychotic when it’s dinner time. But it is possible for carnivores/omnivores to consciously choose compassion over violence, and still be perfectly healthy. Check out this recent video of a lioness protecting, playing with and THEN DEFENDING a baby wildebeest from another lioness who wants to kill the baby! And check out this story about Little Tyke, a lion who vehemently refused to eat her meals if meat was a part of them, or kill her lamb, chicken, cat and many other animal friends at a sanctuary in Washington in the late 1940s and early '50s.
By the way, if you’re still wondering why I refuse to actively end animal-on-animal killings, it’s because omnivores/carnivores don’t claim to be holier-than-thou beings created in the image of God. As long as my species makes this outrageous claim, I will force everyone to “walk the talk” because picking and choosing when to be kind—and whom to be kind to—is purely evil. Once humans stop tormenting and killing billions of innocents, I will fly to the jungles of Tanzania and convince lions not to kill zebras. In the meantime, the morality mirror is firmly positioned in front of our faces.
For people who still insist that lions—and other animal-on-animal killers—should be arrested and charged with murder, I support that sentiment as long as humans who eat meat, dairy and eggs turn themselves in to face the same consequences. For the record, if we want to arrest animals and charge them with murder, we need to grant them equal rights; animals currently have NO standing in court, which means we cannot legally bring them to trial. As soon as animals have the SAME rights of life, liberty and happiness as humans, I will personally oversee the first arrest.